Plato’s history of Greece in his dialogs favors the Athenians. The invaders from beyond the Pillars of Heracles (or the Straits of Gibraltar), Plato says, came almost as far as Athens but were repelled by the Athenians. The genetic history of the peoples of Europe shows sparse genetic distribution in Western France (Gaul, the land of the Druids, as far as Julius Caesar later went, and of the story of Norma by Bellini) and in Sardinia, different from those of most Europeans, close enough for the discomfort of the Achillean warriors.
The mysterious Atlantis, about 9000 years before Plato began the narration of Greek history, may have indeed been The Azores in the Atlantic, precisely where Plato said the invaders had come from. The long spine of the Atlantic, its ridge may have made possible an archipelagic bridge across the ocean from Europe to the Americas, from the inlet to the Mediterranean to Belize in Central America where the Mayan civilization was born. Atlantis may have been the large volcanic island in this cluster that inhabited those who had aspired to invade the mighty Platonic Athens. Still, the question arises as to where the Atlanteans came from, for they could not have materialized magically in the middle of an ocean.
History, as an oral narrative, is transforming into an enterprise that is more scientific. The roots of Indo-European languages have been found to be almost 7000 years old and ancient, pre-fertile crescent cultures have been well documented by archaeologists. The geography of ancient Europe where pottery was found belongs to today’s Czech Republic and Austria. Also, similar pottery was found under the Gulf of Cambay, in Western India. Then, how to reconcile one with the other?
Hypotheses, unchecked, can be woven into theories. One theory goes that the Nordic people had migrated to Atlantis. Genetic migratory patterns show that the Nordic peoples branched out of Central Asia via Czech Republic and Austria and north into Finland, Sweden and Norway, mutating as they migrated deeper into the deep freeze. These same peoples may have indeed found their way, counterclockwise, to Atlantis to bequeath to the Greeks the legends of horses, and elephants by the warmer Azores and the copper trident (copper tools were also found as far as Siberia) of Poseidon or the trishul of Shiva, one of the Indo-Aryan triumvirate to whom the cosmic dance is attributed. But where did these animals come from?
The horses were clearly Central Asian and the elephants, some variant of the wooly mammoth hunted by the Cro-Magnon since about 30,000 years ago. Also, Krishna of the Mahabharata, dark-skinned as the Indo-Aryan legend goes, but most likely a local non-Aryan, had also kept horses and elephants in Dwaraka, by the Gulf of Cambay, submerged off the coast. Why did it submerge? The changing climate may provide the answer.
My hypothesis of civilization begins at the edge of the last ice age, when most of today’s northern India was frozen. To its south was the Gulf of Cambay and the earliest recorded genetic migrations of the second wave (the first were the ancestors of the Australian aborigines) from Central Asia about the same time the Cro-Magnon had populated the colder climes of Europe. It would be very unreasonable to believe that the hunter-gatherers, south of the Vindhyas, have not lived well until tens of thousands of years later, albeit the lack of archaeological evidence.
The Gulf of Cambay discovery and pottery, therefore, can be attributed to these people and so can the elephants and the horses, pushing back agricultural settlements and animal domestications of the cow and the horse tens of thousands of years before the fertile crescent in the Middle East (Egypt did not have the horse until its decline began around 1000 B.C.E. The horse and the chariot can be clearly attributed to the Aryan invasions from Turkey to South Asia.).
Pre-Aryan evidence in South India that had been excavated and carbon-dated to a period much later points to matrilineal goddess worshipping cultures with thick lower lips similar to Africans (and most likely dark skinned) and the genetic distribution in India is largely homogeneous and less fragmented than that of Europe, going back 30,000 years, despite the much vaunted Aryan invasions as recently as around 1500 B.C.E.
Possible reverse migration to Europe and intermingling, as the climate warmed and the ice sheet receded (producing the rivers of north India) beginning about 10,000 years ago (to the period when the origin of civilization defined as agricultural settlements by river banks is currently dated) cannot, therefore, be ruled out to produce the egalitarian, matrilineal and pottery cultures of the ancestors of the Czechs to whom the Greeks clearly trace their European genetic ancestry.
Science has a way of proving beliefs wrong, including those of itself. Self-reflection is the Socratic critique that climaxes rationalism in philosophy, enlightens knowledge with ignorance, and transcends the mundane into wisdom. That knowledge is wisdom is hubris. That absolute knowledge is unknowable to civilization is wisdom. In between lays survival, the only purpose of birth. Learning both begins and ends in “I do not know.”
The owl of (Czech) Bohemia (also a symbol of the Caananite cults in the Near East) and possibly of the Druids of Norma (the Bohemian elites having migrated to what is today’s France) acute in its senses with its ability to see through darkness, is knowledgeable but not wise, for wisdom and, hence, civilization came to humanity by way of language, the ether of the mind, and behavioral modernity about 100,000 to 70,000 years ago, when we were all one, wandering the plains of Africa trying to survive as a species.