The State

By Chandrashekar (Chandra) Tamirisa, (On Twitter) @c_tamirisa

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“We the People, in Peaceful Assembly and Secure in our Persons and Possessions except in Probable Cause, Together as One World with God, in Equality, Liberty and in perfect Union, to establish Justice, insure Domestic Tranquility, provide for Common Defense, and promote our Common Well-being, do ordain and establish this Constitution.”
The Preamble [Preamble of the US Constitution as edited by this author], One World

Western civilization’s attempt to seriously think about the state by Plato, the aristocratic disciple of Socrates, after the defeat of the city state of Athens in the Peloponnesian War to Sparta has yielded the Republic.

The Socratic critique of Athens resembles the critique of America in the run up to the Iraq war and in the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis.

At issue then was whether the Athenian direct democracy, where every citizen held a position of responsibility in the polis at some point in his or her life, was wise in going to war against Sparta to seek absolute victory, not whether the city-state of Athens should be the democracy that it was in structure.

At issue now for America is similar. It is not whether America should be a democracy but if it is being wise when in a geopolitical position of predominance of political and economic power just as Athens was before the Peloponnesian War.

Plato, besides discussing the various functions of the state analogous to the human body in a manner no different from the Indo-Aryan class structure which preceded Pythagoras by nearly a millennium, also speaks of the various forms of the state: aristocratic or rule by the best, his ideal state (being the Athenian aristocrat turned philosopher that he was); oligarchy, the rule of the few; the democracy that Athens was; timocracy or the rule of the honorable; and tyranny or rule by one individual.

Plato’s ideal state is the aristocratic republic comprising of rulers, soldiers and people, the rulers educated to conduct the affairs of the state.

The Roman republic was similar in structure, waning and waxing, just as France has been, between tyranny and republic since its founding in 758 and 728 B.C.E by Romulus and Remus, about 400 years before Plato.

Julius Caesar was assassinated because the rulers (senators) feared his potential for tyranny only to be replaced by two tyrants, Octavian, Caesar’s nephew (western Roman empire) and Mark Antony, Caesar’s friend (eastern Roman empire or Byzantium in Constantinople) to begin the decline of Rome over about the following 400 years.

The categorization of the state by Plato, however, needs reevaluation. There have always been four forms of state: monarchy or dictatorship by one divinely anointed individual; republic or governance by a ruling class as in Rome; democracy or rule by the people as in the Socratic Athens; and tyranny or dictatorship by one man. All governance alternatives described by me above can be civil societies based on the rule of law as determined by the monarch, a ruling class, people or dictator.

That Octavian was divine is an idea which is Egyptian. Pharoahs were divine and Greece and Rome aspired to be Egypt. So was the Jewish Jesus, anointed by His Father to be the king of the Jews in the bloodline of David and Solomon.

The American state is a democratic republic, Greco-Roman in structure. The rulers are the elected members of Congress or people’s representatives who are the lawmakers; soldiers are the presidency, the president being the commander-in-chief and the executor of the laws; and the people who choose their representatives to be their proxies and delegate ruling to them.

Since the Industrial Revolution and later the end of World War II, the world has come to comprise of democratic republics which are all capitalist varying only in degrees – limited, socialist, and communist – of intervention in the economy. Voting directly and in representation to share power and allocate resources, and accumulation of physical capital to grow the economy through open markets diverse in the extent of openness is how the political economies of the various countries of the world are constituted.

America, however, may not be the ideal state. Absolute pluralism is to seek alternatives, for example, in United States to the existing constitution and in China to its monolithic one party structure.

The primary purpose of the state is social order. The ancient Indo-Aryan socio-political-economic structure by occupational class as its basis, the ideal state – a constitutional technocratic direct teledemocracy –
consists of the people, a non-hereditary elected ruler, intellectuals, and merchants.

In implementation, the ideal state is made of one ruler, a president, elected by the people, who is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, law maker and chief judge of the judiciary; appointed experts to the president; and merchants, all educated by the intellectuals in their choice of occupation in a non-hereditary manner.

The defining characteristics of such a constitutional technocratic direct teledemocracy are no political parties and direct citizen participation through debate in decision and law making.

After all, mutually authenticated Platonic love, mind to mind, where the brain is the device, is but love thy neighbor as thyself, for the purpose of politics is justice, injustice being the violation of free will, and free will the nature and destiny of all life.

Peace through sustainability is the raison d être of The State.

In or out of the cave, there is always a shadow.


About Chandrashekar (Chandra) Tamirisa
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3 Responses to The State

  1. Would you consider Plato and his republic to fit quite neatly into the modern definition of Fascism.
    Are Technocracy and Oligarchy mutually exclusive we seem to be headed towards a Technocratic Oligarchy with events in the Near East and North Africa suggesting a bid for Technocratic Tyranny by the City State of Washington.
    He may have lived in a Barrel and been something of an eccentric but where is Diogenes and his Lamp it’s shining truth is much needed in these days of Alexandrian Role Play by Mr Obama and his Praetorian Guard of Neo Conservative Zionist Machiavelli’s.

    • This article, the first of three, is a seminal contribution to political economy and civilization. The remaining two to follow are: The Law and The Economy.

      I am working on a getting a book advance from a publisher for The State. It would cross several sub-disciplines: Political theory, Alternative Constitutionalism, Comparative Politics, Economic Science, and Future Studies.

      Plato’s ideal state is rule by the best. Its (mis)interpretation is akin to (mis) understanding Nietzsche’s übermensch.

      I did not think Plato was adequate in classifying the people’s roles in relation to the structure of the state as guardians or philosophers, rulers, soldiers and all else.

      In America, philosophers have little value outside the prep school and Ivy League hallways where they are not truly philosophers but teachers of the craft of geopolitics focused on the oath of allegiance to advancing the interest of the nation-state within its boundaries, soldiers are the best trained anywhere in the world in the military academies, and there are all else. So, you get my paragraph on Plato in relation to the American political structure. But, as I say, it is not the ideal state of Plato by any means nor is it the ideal state. I suggest an alternative model.

      (In response to T A Balasubramanian and Vladimir Seroff on Linkedin) Plato’s rulers in Republic are the elites in mind. The ideal state, given the Socratic critique of Athenian democracy (Apology; I F Stone: The Trial of Socrates), is Plato’s rule by the best or aristocrats (him, self-referential, the upper class Athenian in mind and body turned philosopher. Plato, thus, becomes the guardian of his ideal state, Athens, through his Academy. Socrates was a vagabond. Could this be Hitler’s Aryan man misunderstood also as Nietzsche’s übermensch? Not if the rest of my state structure is adopted).

      United States, France, Germany and Russia come closest to my ideal state (last two paragraphs). If they abrogate their legislatures, unlike the Roman Senate, and turn over participation in legislation and decision making directly to the people and abolish political parties, they will become the ideal states.

      The Supreme Court of the United States, for example, then becomes a technocratic legal group of experts advising the president on cases that rise to him through the judiciary, likewise structured in the states of the federated union. Article I of the US Constitution will then directly reference people participation, not representatives and specifies that process of engagement. Article III specifies the Supreme Court as a legal advisory panel. Article II is amended accordingly to specify the new executive powers. The Amendments are preserved and streamlined to be similarly modified.

      The bottom line: We the people are their own representatives in a unitary federalist structure of governance. Money then flows to the people not to the Congress and president. The change will be from a do nothing Congress to do something people.

  2. There is always a shadow, in or outside the cave. Enlightenment is knowing that it is a shadow. Yours. Not the absence of a shadow. Plato had borrowed the idea from the Minoans. If you fully know yourself (a sin in The Genesis), you are divine. If you love yourself (innocence in The Genesis), it is sufficient.

    Knowledge is sin. Not love.

    In Hinduism, knowing is known as divine. There is no duality within the realm of human consciousness. Consistent with The Genesis, Day 6.

    The forbidden is the tree of knowledge. Eve’s curiosity is provoked by the snake, kept guard of the tree by God (him – it – self). God is the snake. Satan is God. God is Satan. Eve bites into the apple wanting to know. Knows she is naked. Then invites Adam. Adam bites into the apple. Knows he is naked. They then put on their fig leaves and are banished. God tested them in the form of Satan guarding his own knowledge of him (it) self after having endowed Adam and Eve with it. Had they not known, they would have eaten vegetation, lived in peace with other animals and plants, procreated, and lived forever in innocence. Self knowledge is all knowledge.

    Did the apple fall to the ground or the ground to the apple or both?

    God/Satan tempts his son Jesus, as Satan had done Eve in the wilderness. Jesus is not tempted.

    The rest of nature lives in peace as God has decreed of man also. It is born, grows, lives and dies. Does not care about knowing itself beyond the basic instincts of food, shelter, air, water and reproduction.

    Let us know what we can know by 2050 and get on with it as God has decreed.

    We could be immortal. At what cost? Immortality. Earth is home. Period, for we are of earth.

    Did you ever look at an animal in the wild and wonder that it should be clothed? It seems like a foolish idea. They are beautiful as they are in their nature.

    The Vitruvian Man. Healthy, perfect, sustainable, living a life by instinct like an animal of a different kind, within a circle, irrational by mathematics, yet perfect.

    Do not ask why. Just live. You are endowed naturally by God to do so.

    God is knowledge, knowledge is God. God is the universe. Variations of form, the same substrate.

    The most elemental, if it is the Higgs Boson, had to come from somewhere. It always has been and will be. Timeless. Ouroboros. Recursive.

    The Wall, By Pink Floyd.

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